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Glossary of Acronyms


A   (Glossary of Acronyms)

A/E:  Architect/Engineer
AA:  Alternatives Analysis
AADT:  Annual Average Daily Traffic
AASHTO:  American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
ABS:  Automatic Block Signals
AC:  Alternating Current
ACHP:  Advisory Council on Historic Preservation
ACOE:  United States Army Corps of Engineers (sometimes COE)
ADA:  Americans with Disabilities Act
ADT:  Average Daily Traffic (2-way 24-hour)
AISC:  American Institute of Steel Construction
AISI:  American Iron and Steel Institute
Amp:  Ampere
AMSL:  Above Mean Sea Level
ANSI:  American National Standard Institute
APE:  Area of Potential Effect
AQCC:  Air Quality Control Commission
ASA:  Acoustical Society of America
ASTM:  American Society for Testing and Materials
ATSSA:  American Traffic Safety Services Association

B   (Glossary of Acronyms)

BLM:  Bureau of Land Management
BLS:  Bureau of Labor Statistics
BMP:  Best Management Plan or Best Management Practices
BTPD:  Black-Tailed Prairie Dog
Btu:  British Thermal Unit

C   (Glossary of Acronyms)

CA:  Contract Administrator
CAA:  Clean Air Act
CAAA:  Clean Air Act Amendment
CAC:  Citizens Advisory Committee
CAD:  Computer-Aided Drafting
CAD/AVL:  Computer-Aided Dispatch/Automatic Vehicle Locator
CBC:  Concrete Box Culvert
CBD:  Central Business District
CCC:  Central Control Center
CCD:  City and County of Denver
CCH:  Communication Control Head
CCTV:  Closed-Circuit TV
CDOT:  Colorado Department of Transportation
CDPHE:  Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment
CDOW:  Colorado Division of Wildlife
CDPS:  Colorado Discharge Permit System
CE:  Categorical Exclusion
CEQ:  Council on Environmental Quality
CERCLA:  Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980
CERCLIS:  Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability List
CFR:  Code of Federal Regulations
CGIA:  Colorado Governmental Immunity Act
CLC:  Colorado Legislative Council
CLRTP:  Constrained Long-Range Transportation Plan
CMAQ:  Congestion Mitigation Air Quality Improvement Program
CMP:  Construction Management Plan
CMS:  Congestion Management System
CO:  Carbon Monoxide
COE:  United States Army Corps of Engineers (sometimes ACOE)
COGO:  Coordinate Geometry Output
COP:  Certificate of Participation
COPEEN:  Colorado's People's Environmental and Economic Network
CPM:  Critical Path Method
CRHP:  Colorado Register of Historic Places
CRS:  Colorado Revised Statutes
CTN:  Colorado Transportation Network

D   (Glossary of Acronyms)

dB:  Decibels
dBA:  Decibel (A-Weighted Scale)
DBE:  Disadvantaged Business Enterprise
DEIS:  Draft Environmental Impact Statement
DHV:  Design Hourly Volume (two-way unless specified otherwise)
DIA:  Denver International Airport
DMIS:  Draft Major Investment Study
DOI:  Department of the Interior
DOT:  Department of Transportation
DRCOG:  Denver Regional Council of Governments
DTC:  Denver Technological Center
DTD:  Division of Transportation Development

E   (Glossary of Acronyms)

EA:  Environmental Assessment
EIS:  Environmental Impact Statement
EJ:  Environmental Justice
EJCC:  Environmental Justice Compliance Committee
EJOC:  Environmental Justice Oversight Committee
EO:  Executive Order
EOC:  Executive Oversight Committee
EPA:  United States Environmental Protection Agency
ESA:  Endangered Species Act
ESAL:  Equivalent Single-Axle Load

F   (Glossary of Acronyms)

FAA:  Federal Aviation Administration
FAR:  Federal Acquisition Regulation
FCC:  Federal Communications Commission
FEIS:  Final Environmental Impact Statement
FEMA:  Federal Emergency Management Agency
FFGA:  Full-Funding Grant Agreement
FHPM:  Federal-Aid Highway Program Manual
FHWA:  Federal Highway Administration
FIR:  Field Inspection Review
FMIS:  Final Major Investment Study
FMP:  Fire Management Plan
FMS:  Financial Management Study
FONSI:  Finding of No Significant Impact
FOR:  Final Office Review
FPPA:  Farmland Protection Policy Act
ft:  Foot
ft/min:  Foot per Minute
ft³/min:  Cubic Feet per Minute >
ft³/sec:  Cubic Feet per Second (CFS)
FWPCA:  Federal Water Pollution Control Act
FWS:  United States Fish and Wildlife Service

G   (Glossary of Acronyms)

GARVEE:  Grant Anticipation Revenue Vehicles
GIS:  Geographic Information System
GPS:  Global Positioning System
GSA:  Government Services Administration
GVW:  Gross Vehicle Weight

H   (Glossary of Acronyms)

h:  Hour
HABS:  Historic American Building Survey
HAER:  Historic American Engineering Record
HCCPD:  HydroChloro-CycloPentaDiene
HCM:  Highway Capacity Manual
HDPE:  High Density PolyEthylene
HOV:  High Occupancy Vehicle
HPCU:  Hydraulic Pressure Control Unit
Hz:  Hertz

I   (Glossary of Acronyms)

ICCC:  Intergovernmental Coordination and Compliance Committee
IF:  Intergovernmental Forum
IGA:  Intergovernmental Agreement
in:  Inch
ISTEA:  Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act

J   (Glossary of Acronyms)

J:  Joule

K   (Glossary of Acronyms)

kg:  Kilogram
khz:  Kilohertz
km:  Kilometer
km/h:  Kilometer per Hour
kWh:  Kilowatt Hour

L   (Glossary of Acronyms)

LAeqlh:  Hourly Level Equivalent
lb:  Pound
lbf:  Pound Force
LOS:  Level of Service
LPA:  Locally Preferred Alternative
LPS:  Locally Preferred Strategy
LRTP:  Long-Range Transportation Plan
LUST:  Leaking Underground Storage Tank
LWCFA:  Land and Water Conservation Fund Act

M   (Glossary of Acronyms)

m:  Meter
MHz:  Mega Hertz
mi:  Mile
min:  Minute
MIS:  Major Investment Study
mm:  Millimeter
MOA:  Memorandum of Agreement
MOU:  Memorandum of Understanding
MOW:  Maintenance-of-Way
MP:  Milepost
mph:  Miles Per Hour
mphps:  Miles Per Hour Per Second
MPO:  Metropolitan Planning Organization
MSA:  Metropolitan Statistical Area
MSAT:  Mobile Source Air Toxics
MSE:  Mechanically Stabilized Earth
MTA:  Metropolitan Transit Authority
mV:  Millivolt

N   (Glossary of Acronyms)

N:  Newton
NAAQS:  National Ambient Air Quality Standard
NAC:  Noise Abatement Criteria
NEPA:  National Environmental Policy Act
NESC:  National Electrical Safety Code
NFPA:  National Fire Protection Association
NGS:  National Geodetic Survey
NHI:  National Highway Institute
NHPA:  National Historic Preservation Act
NHS:  National Highway System
NOA:  Notice of Availability
NOAA:  National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration
NOI:  Notice of Intent
NOx:  Oxide of Nitrogen
NPL:  National Priorities List
NPS:  National Park Service
NRCS:  Natural Resources Conservation Service
NRHP:  National Register of Historic Places
NTP:  Notice to Proceed
NWI:  National Wetlands Inventory

O   (Glossary of Acronyms)

O&M:  Operations and Maintenance
O3:  Ozone
OAHP:  Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation
OEM:  Original Equipment Manufacturer
OEP:  Office of Environmental Planning
OMB:  Office of Management and Budget
OSHA:  Occupational, Safety and Health Association
OSI:  Open System Interconnect
OST:  Office of the Secretary of Transportation
oz:  Ounce

P   (Glossary of Acronyms)

P.C.:  Project Control
P.E.:  Preliminary Engineering or Professional Engineer
PA:  Programmatic Agreement
PAC:  Policy Action Committee
Pbtt:  Lead
pcf:  Pound per Cubic Foot
PIC:  Public Involvement Committee
PIP:  Public Involvement Plan
plf:  Pound per Linear Foot
PM10:  Particulate Matter Less than 10 Micron Size
PMC:  Project Management Committee
PMG:  Project Management Group
PMJM:  Preble's Meadow Jumping Mouse
PMO/C:  Project Management Oversight/Contractor
PMP:  Project Management Plan
PMSA:  Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area (U.S. Census)
PMT:  Project Management Team
PPI:  Public-Private Initiative
PR:  Purchase Requisition or Public Relations
PRT:  Project Review Team
PS&E:  Plans, Specifications, and Estimate
PSF:  Pounds per square foot
PSI:  Pounds per square inch
PUC:  Public Utilities Commission

Q   (Glossary of Acronyms)

QA/QC:  Quality Assurance/Quality Control
QPMR:  Quality Project Manager Review

R   (Glossary of Acronyms)

RAPS:  Regional Air Pollution Study
RAQC:  Regional Air Quality Council
RCRA:  Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
RCRIS:  Resource Conservation and Recovery Information System
RMS:  Root Mean Square
ROD:  Record of Decision
ROE:  Right of Entry
ROW:  Right of Way
RR:  Railroad
RTD:  Regional Transportation District (or Regional Transportation Director for CDOT)
RTP:  Regional Transportation Plan

S   (Glossary of Acronyms)

s:  Second
SCADA:  Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
SCLDF:  Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund
SCS:  Soil Conservation Service
SDEIS:  Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement
sec:  Second
SEE:  Social, Economic, Environmental (factors)
SEIS:  Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement
SEL:  Source Exposure Level
SEQRA:  State Environmental Quality Review Act
SHA:  State Highway Agency
SHPO:  State Historic Preservation Office
SIP:  State Implementation Plan
SMSA:  Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (U.S. Census)
SOX:  Oxide of Sulfur
sq ft:  Square Feet
STAMINA:  Standard Method of Noise Analysis
STIP:  Statewide Transportation Improvement Plan
SWMP:  Storm Water Management Plan

T   (Glossary of Acronyms)

T/E:  Threatened and/or Endangered Species
TAC:  Technical Advisory Committee
TAZ:  Traffic Analysis Zone
TCM:  Transportation Control Measure
TDM:  Transportation Demand Management
TEA-21:  Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century
TIC:  Telephone Information Center
TIFIA:  Transportation Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act
TIP:  Transportation Improvement Plan
TMDL:  Total Maximum Daily Load
TMO:  Transportation Management Organization
TMOSS:  Terrain Modeling Survey System
TMS:  Traffic Management System
TREX:  Southeast Corridor Transportation Expansion Project
TSM:  Transportation System Management
TSP:  Traffic Signal Priority

U   (Glossary of Acronyms)

UBC:  Uniform Building Code
UD&FCR:  Urban Drainage and Flood Control Region
UMTA:  Urban Mass Transportation Authority
UPRR:  Union Pacific Railroad
USACOE:  United States Army Corps of Engineers
USASI:  United States of America Standards Institute
USC:  United States Code
USCG:  United States Coast Guard
USDA:  United States Department of Agriculture
USDOT:  United States Department of Transportation (sometimes DOT)
USFS:  United States Forest Service
USFWS:  United States Fish and Wildlife Service (sometimes FWS)
USGS:  United States Geological Survey
UST:  Underground Storage Tank

V   (Glossary of Acronyms)

V:  Velocity
Vac:  Volt Alternating Current
V/C:  Volume to Capacity (ratio)
Vdc:  Volt Direct Current
VE:  Value Engineering
VHT:  Vehicle Hours Traveled
VMS:  Variable Message Sign
VMT:  Vehicle Miles Traveled
VPH:  Vehicles Per Hour

W   (Glossary of Acronyms)

WBE:  Women's Business Enterprise
WET II:  Wetlands Evaluation Technique
WGs:  Working Groups
WQCD:  Water Quality Control Division

X   (Glossary of Acronyms)

Y   (Glossary of Acronyms)

YTD:  Year to Date

Z   (Glossary of Acronyms)

ZRL:  Zero Risk Level

-   (Glossary of Acronyms)

ºC:  Degree Celsius
ºF:  Degree Fahrenheit
':  Foot
":  Inch
µV:  Microvolt

Glossary of Definitions


A   (Glossary of Definitions)

A.M. Peak Period:  Peak morning travel period.
Accessibility:  A measure of the ability or ease of all people to travel among various origins and destinations.
Air Pollution:  The presence of unwanted material in the air in sufficient amount and under such circumstances as to potentially interfere with human comfort, health, or welfare, or with full use and enjoyment of property. National and state ambient air quality standards identify pollutant concentrations not to be exceeded over a specified time.
Alignment:  A ground plan or route of a railroad, highway, fixed-guideway transit, or other forms of transportation.
Alternative Analysis:  Federal requirement for major capital investments involving the systematic and rigorous evaluation of possible courses of action by considering different modal, design, and service options.
Ambient Air Quality:  A physical and chemical measure of the concentration of various chemicals in the outside air, usually determined over a specific time period (e.g., one hour, eight hours).
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA):  A federal civil rights law enacted in 1990 that mandates the provision of access to public facilities for persons with disabilities. Title 2 of the law applies to transportation facilities and transit vehicles.

Aquifer:  A water-bearing underground layer of permeable rock, sand, or gravel.
Area of Potential Effect (APE):  For the EIS impact analyses, the distance from each proposed rail or highway corridor and station area within which potential impacts are measured and evaluated.
Area Source:  A general classification of the origin of an air pollutant (e.g., park-n-ride lots are area sources of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions).
Artifacts:  Any portable object used and/or modified by civilization (particularly during prehistoric times).
As-Built:  A certified copy of a drawing from a finalized project as it actually was built, including all amendments.
At-Grade Crossing:  Any intersection of two or more flows of traffic at the same elevation (possibly involving more than one mode of transportation), such as a railroad crossing.
Auto Restricted Zone (ARZ):  An area in which normal automobile traffic is prohibited or limited to certain times, and vehicular traffic is restricted to public transit, emergency vehicles, taxicabs and, in some cases, delivery of goods.
Average Daily Traffic (ADT):  The total volume of traffic during a given time period divided by the number of days in that time period, representative of average traffic in a one-day time period.
Average Wait Time (AWT):  Average time spent by passengers at a station or bus stop waiting for transit service.
Average Weekday (AWD):  A measurement of average traffic conditions during any one weekday, i.e., Monday through Friday.

B   (Glossary of Definitions)

Base Year:  The first year of a planning or forecast period.
Baseline Energy Consumption:  Energy consumption, usually for a no-build alternative, that is used as a reference against which energy consumption for a build alternative is compared.
Build Year:  Also known as horizon year. The year for which traffic and population projections have been made and transportation needs analyzed.
Bus Lane:  A traffic lane for dominant or exclusive use by transit buses.
Bus Shelter:  A structure that provides seating and protection from weather for bus passengers.

C   (Glossary of Definitions)

Calibration:  In travel demand modeling, the procedure used to estimate the parameters of a model to replicate actual measurements of travel behavior and conditions.
Capital Assistance:  Financial assistance for transit/highway capital expenses (not operating costs); such aid may originate with federal, local, or state governments.
Capital Costs:  The cost of designing, acquiring rights of way, constructing, purchasing equipment (e.g., vehicles), and implementing a transit system.
Categorical Exclusion:  A determination by the respective federal agency that a proposed action does not individually or cumulatively involve significant social, economic, or environmental impacts.
Central Business District (CBD):  The primary downtown area of a city or an area of concentrated retail business offices, theatres, hotels, and other services.
Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA):  A federal law enacted in 1990 that places new federal controls on all sources of air pollution including mobile sources (automobiles, buses, trucks, etc.). The CAAA includes an implementation strategy and establishes air quality improvement requirements.
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR):  A compilation of the general and permanent rules of the executive departments and agencies of the federal government as published in the Federal Register. The code is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to federal regulation.
CFR, Title 23, Part 771:  Federal Highway Administration and Federal Transit Administration regulations governing the preparation of environmental impact statements and related documents.
CFR, Title 23, Part 777:  Federal Highway Administration and Federal Transit Administration regulations providing policy and procedures for evaluation and mitigation for impacts to wetlands and natural resources.
Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT):  At the state level, a cabinet agency with responsibility for highways, mass transit, aviation, and ports; headed by the secretary of transportation. The U.S. DOT includes the FHWA, the FTA and the FAA, among others. There are also state DOTs.
Commuter Bus:  Bus service provided along major arterial roads with limited stops, accessing a major destination point with both pedestrian and automobile access.
Construction Staging Area:  During construction, a site temporarily used for materials or equipment storage, assembly, or other temporary, construction-related activities.
Constructive Use:  Under Section 4(f) of the Department of Transportation Act, a "constructive use" of a 4(f) resource (park, recreation, or historic resources) would result when the proximity impacts (such as noise, visual, or access impacts) would substantially impair the resource's attributes.
Corridor:  In planning, the geographic area within which a transportation system is located or planned to be located.
Cost Effectiveness Index:  An index used by the Federal Transit Administration to examine the incremental cost per incremental rider for a proposed project seeking New Starts funding. The measure, expressed in current year dollars, is based on annualized total capital costs and annual operating costs divided by the forecast change in annual transit ridership, comparing the proposed project build alternatives to the New Starts Baseline.
Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ):  A three-member council created by Title II of NEPA in the Executive Office of the President, responsible for advisory, reporting, and policy analysis functions.

D   (Glossary of Definitions)

Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG):  A voluntary consortium of local government representatives from contiguous communities meeting on a regular basis, and formed to cooperate on common planning and solve common development problems of their area. COGs can function as the RTPAs and MPOs in urbanized areas.
Design Build:  Alternative method for project delivery in which the contractor is responsible for designing and constructing a project for a pre-specified cost.
Determination of Eligibility:  The decision of the state historic preservation officer (SHPO) on whether candidate historic properties or resources are qualified for the State and/or National Register of Historic Places.
Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE):  A business owned and operated by one or more socially and economically disadvantaged individuals. Socially and economically disadvantaged individuals include African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, Asian Pacific Americans, or Asian Indian Americans, and any other minority or individuals found to be disadvantaged by the Small Business Administration under Section 8(a) of the Small Business Act.

E   (Glossary of Definitions)

Ecologically Sensitive Area:  An area, valued locally for its rare or sensitive habitat, existing in a relatively undisturbed, natural state and supporting indigenous species.
Easement by Necessity:  An easement allowed by law as necessary for the full enjoyment of a parcel of real estate; for example, a right of ingress and egress over a grantor's land.
Eminent Domain:  The right of a government or municipal quasi-public body to acquire property for public use through a court action called condemnation, in which the court decides that the use is a public use and determines the compensation to be paid to the owner.
Emission Standards:  A limitation on the release of an air contaminant into the ambient air (e.g., the federal government limits GO, HG, and Nox emissions per mile of travel in new automobiles).
Endangered Species:  A species whose prospects for survival are in immediate danger based on a loss of habitat, over-exploitation, predation, competition, or disease. Presence of an endangered species requires special measures to ensure a project does not harm the species or its habitat.
Endangered Species Act (ESA):  Federal law protecting endangered species.
Environmental Assessment (EA):  A public document that has three defined functions: (1) It briefly provides sufficient evidence and analysis for determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS); (2) it aids in the agency's compliance with NEPA when no EIS is necessary, i.e., helps to identify better alternatives and mitigation measures; and (3) it facilitates preparation of an EIS when one is necessary.
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS):  A comprehensive study of potential environmental impacts related to federally assisted projects. Projects for which an EIS is required are defined in the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended. An EIS is prepared in two steps: a Draft EIS, which is circulated to the public, and a Final EIS, which records responses to public comments and finalizes mitigation commitments.
Environmental Justice:  "Legislation which calls for the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin or income with respect to the development, implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations and policies," as defined by the Environmental Protection Agency. There are three fundamental principles of environmental justice: (1) To avoid, minimize, or mitigate disproportionately high and adverse human health and environmental effects, including social and economic effects, on minority populations and low-income populations; (2) To ensure the full and fair participation by all potentially affected communities in the transportation decision-making process; and (3) To prevent the denial of, reduction in, or significant delay in the receipt of benefits by minority and low-income populations.
Environmental Site Assessment (Phase I, Phase II):  The investigation of a parcel with respect to the presence of environmental contaminants. A Phase I assessment consists of inquiries and record searches concerning past and present uses of a property. Phase II involves sampling and testing of soil, water, and materials from the site for hazardous materials.
Executive Order 11991:  (E.O. 11991) The order that directed CEQ guidelines to be written as regulations binding on all federal actions and to reduce paperwork.
Express Service:  Transit to/from a destination with limited or no stops along its route.

F   (Glossary of Definitions)

Feasible:  Feasible means capable of being accomplished in a successful manner within a reasonable period of time, taking into account economic, environmental, social, and technological factors.
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA):  The federal agency responsible for the approval of transportation projects that affect the federal highway system. Administratively, FHWA is part of the U.S. Department of Transportation.
Federal Transit Administration (FTA):  The federal agency responsible for approval of public transportation projects. The FTA also helps cities and communities nationwide to provide improved mobility to their citizens. Through its grant programs, FTA provides financial and planning assistance to help plan, build, and operate rail, bus, and paratransit systems. The agency also assists in the development of local and regional traffic reduction.
FHWA Technical Advisory (T.A.) 6640.8A:  FHWA guidance for preparing and processing environmental and Section 4(f) documents.
Finding of No Significant Impacts (FONSI):  A formal decision granted by the lead federal agency that provides written documentation of the agency's decision on an Environmental Assessment.
Floodplain:  Land area likely to be submerged during a flood as defined by federal Flood Insurance Rate Maps.
Fugitive Dust:  Airborne dust particles resulting from construction, demolition, and other induced activity, which can significantly impact air quality in the project area.
Fully Controlled Right of Way:  Grade-separated or at-grade with no crossings, or widely spaced crossings with signal override and gate protection.

G   (Glossary of Definitions)

Grade Crossing:  A railroad or rail transit crossing with a roadway on the same level, resulting in an at-grade intersection.
Grade Separation:  The construction of a roadway and/or railroad over or under an intersecting roadway or railroad.

H   (Glossary of Definitions)

High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV):  A vehicle carrying at least a specified number of individuals, usually two or three.
Household Income:  The total combined income of all members of a single household.

I   (Glossary of Definitions)

Induced Trips:  New trips generated because of the construction of a new transportation facility that were not previously being made.
Infill Development:  Real estate development on undeveloped property within a developed area.
Infrastructure:  The physical support network—such as roads, railroads, and utilities—of a given geographical area.
Interchange:  The system of interconnecting ramps between two or more grade-separated intersecting roadways or guideways.
Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA):  Highway, safety, and mass transit act whose purpose was to develop an economically and environmentally efficient transportation system.

J   (Glossary of Definitions)

Joint Development:  A shared effort on the part of two or more parties to develop the areas typically around proposed stations or adjacent to alternatives.

K   (Glossary of Definitions)

L   (Glossary of Definitions)

Land Development Pattern:  The use, types, and intensity of the built environment. Land development patterns affect trip demand, average length and, therefore, public resources and energy consumption.
Land Use Planning:  The process of determining the location, density, and mix of land uses, such as residential, commercial, industrial, open space/parks, and other land uses. The regulatory tool used to enforce activities/development within a certain land use designation is zoning.
Lead Agency:  The agency or agencies that have taken the primary responsibility for preparing the environmental impact statement.
Legal Description:  A method of describing a particular parcel of land in such a way that it uniquely describes the particular parcel and no other. A legal description may be a simple reference to a lot as shown on a subdivision plat, or be described my metes and bounds. To be adequate, it should be sufficient to locate the property without oral testimony.
Level of Service (LOS):  A set of descriptive characteristics used to indicate the quality of transportation service provided, including characteristics that are quantifiable (e.g., frequency, travel time, travel cost, number of transfers, safety, amount of delay) and those that are difficult to quantify (e.g., availability, comfort, convenience, modal image).
Level of Service Standards:  Standards set by local and regional jurisdictions in general plans and congestion management programs, which specify the design capacity of a roadway to accommodate a specified number of vehicles per travel lane.
Line Haul:  A transit system that offers service along a line or corridor.
Link:  A section of a transportation system network that connects two nodes. It may be one way or two way.
Locally Preferred Alternative:  The alternative selected by the local jurisdiction, identified in a major investment study.

M   (Glossary of Definitions)

Mass Transportation:  Shared transportation services either publicly or privately owned, provided to the public on a regular and continuing basis (not including school bus, charter, or sightseeing service).
Master Plan:  A public document adopted by a local government as a policy guide for decisions about the physical and/or economic development of the community.
Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO):  Regional planning entity responsible for preparing and updating a long-range transportation plan.
Minority Residents:  Those persons who, in responding to the U.S. Census, indicated their race to be something other than "white" or reported entries that the Bureau of the Census categorized as something other than "white."
Mitigated Negative Declaration:  A negative declaration is prepared for a project when the initial study has identified potentially significant effects on the environment, but revisions in the project plan or proposal are agreed to by the applicant before the proposed negative declaration and initial study are released for public review. The applicant agrees to avoid the impact or mitigate the impact to a point where clearly no significant effect on the environment would occur, and there is no substantial evidence in light of the whole record before the public agency that the project, as revised, would have a significant effect on the environment.
Mitigation:  Measures designed to lessen or eliminate the negative impacts resulting from a proposed project or action.
Modal Split:  A term that describes how many people use alternative forms of transportation. Frequently used to describe the percentage of people using private automobiles as opposed to the percentage using public transportation.
Mode:  A form of travel (e.g., walking, automobile, bus, train).
Mode Split:  The portion of total person trips generated in a region that are made by a specific type of transportation (i.e., transit, automobile, etc.), usually expressed as a percentage of total trips. This is often used in developing traffic volume and transit ridership forecasts.

N   (Glossary of Definitions)

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA):  The federal statute that set broad national policy regarding the environment and established implementation procedures.
National Historic Preservation Act of 1966:  The federal statute that established the National Register of Historic Places and state historic preservation programs and set forth guidelines and regulations for environmental review of projects involving federal funding.
National Register of Historic Places:  The federal list of buildings and sites determined to have historical significance as maintained by the keeper of the Register.
Navigable Waterways:  As described by the U.S. Coast Guard, waterways that are either subject to the ebb and flow of the tide or any waterway which is or could be used with reasonable improvement to transport interstate or foreign commerce.
Negative Declaration:  Negative declaration means a written statement briefly describing the reasons that a proposed project will not have a significant effect on the environment and does not require the preparation of an environmental impact report.
Neighborhood Cohesion:  The common characteristics of members and elements of a neighborhood that affords them a unique sense of place and identity.

No-Build Alternative:  Future conditions of an area in the absence of a proposed project, i.e., what would happen if the project were not built.
Non-Attainment Area:  A geographical region that fails to attain or conform to established environmental standards (e.g., air quality, water quality).
Notice of Intent:  Formal notice in the Federal Register to initiate the NEPA process (required for Environmental Impact Statements).

O   (Glossary of Definitions)

Off-Peak Period:  The time period exclusive of the A.M. and P.M. peak periods (i.e., mid-day, evenings, and weekends).
Operating and Maintenance Costs:  The expenses for operating a transit system and maintaining vehicles, guideways, stations, and other transit facilities.
Ozone:  An unstable form of oxygen, O3, formed by a photochemical reaction of atmospheric gases with solar ultraviolet radiation. Ozone is a harmful air pollutant in the lower atmosphere and contributes to the formation of smog.

P   (Glossary of Definitions)

P.M. Peak Period:  The afternoon rush hours.
Passenger Mile:  The transportation of one passenger a distance of one mile.
Peak Hour:  The hour of the day in which the maximum demand is experienced, accommodating the largest number of automobiles or transit patrons.
Peak Period:  The period during which the maximum amount of travel occurs. It may be specified as the morning (a.m.) or afternoon/evening (p.m.) peak. It is the period when demand for transportation services is heaviest.
Pedestrian Lighting:  The illumination of an area for the safety of persons traveling on foot.
Per-Capita Income:  The total combined income of a geographic area or socio-economic group divided by the total number of persons in that area or group.
Project Report (PR):  PR is a conceptual engineering report that describes the work in more detail than the Project Study Report (PSR). It is prepared, along with the environmental document, on projects that require federal or state funding administered through CALTRANS. The report is used to recommend a project to the Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) for ultimate approval and funding prior to the start of design. The term "Draft Project Report" (Draft PR) refers to a draft version of this report, prepared for public and agency review.
Public Agency:  Public agency includes any state agency, board, or commission, any county, city and county, city, regional agency, public district, redevelopment agency, or other political subdivision.
Public Transportation:  Regular transportation service to the public using a route or routes from one fixed point to another.

Q   (Glossary of Definitions)

R   (Glossary of Definitions)

Record of Decision (ROD):  A formal decision granted by the respective federal agency(s) that provides a written record of decision on a Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS). The ROD documents any conditions or mitigation measures committed to in the FEIS.
Recordation:  Documenting and archiving information on historic resources. This is typically accomplished prior to the demolition or alteration of the resource.
Regional Transportation District (RTD):  The Regional Transportation District is a public agency created in 1969 by the Colorado General Assembly. RTD is the regional authority to plan and build a public transportation system for the six-county area (and part of a seventh) whose center is Denver, Colorado. RTD operates as a public transportation system in a seven-county service area, which includes all of Boulder, Broomfield, Denver, and Jefferson Counties, and parts of Adams, Arapahoe, and Douglas Counties.
Regional Transportation Planning Agency (RTPA):  RTPAs are designated by the State of Colorado to provide regional transportation planning and make funding decisions, including preparation of the Regional Transportation Plan and the Regional Transportation Improvement Program.
Reverse Community:  Movement in a direction opposite the main flow of traffic, such as from the central city to a suburb during the morning peak period.
Right of Entry (ROE):  Right to enter someone else's property.
Right of Way (ROW):  A corridor of land acquired by reservation, dedication, prescription, or condemnation, and intended to be used as a road, rail line, utility service, buffer, or for similar use.
Roadbed:  (1) In railroad construction, the foundation on which the ballast and track rest. (2) In highway construction, the graded portion of a highway within top and side slopes, prepared as a foundation for the pavement structure and shoulder.

Route:  The course or path followed by a transit or highway vehicle.
Route Miles:  The length of a route measured in miles between its end points.
Runoff:  The rainwater that directly leaves an area in surface drainage, as opposed to the amount that seeps out as groundwater.

S   (Glossary of Definitions)

Scoping:  The process of defining and refining the scope of a DEIS and the alternatives to be investigated. The scoping process provides opportunities for input from the public.
Section 10:  (Title 33, United States Code, Section 403). The provision of federal statutes that established authority to issue permits for obstructions or alterations of any navigable waters of the United States. Permit program is administered by the Army Corps of Engineers.
Section 106:  (Title 36, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 800). The section of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 that establishes a procedure to review the potential effects on cultural resources by projects receiving federal funds.
Section 4(f):  (Title 49, United States Code, Section 303). The provision of the Department of Transportation Act that restricts the use of USDOT funds for projects affecting the following properties: publicly owned land from a public park, recreation area or wildlife and waterfowl refuge, or any land from significant historic site.
Section 4(f) Resource:  A public park, recreation, or wildlife/waterfowl refuge, or significant historic resources, that fall within the jurisdiction of the 1966 Department of Transportation Act and subsequent refinements.
Section 404 of the Clean Water Act:  (Title 33, United States Code, Sections 1357 - 1376). The provision of federal statutes that established a permit program to be administered by the Army Corps of Engineers under guidelines by EPA to protect the nation's waters from dredged and fill sources.
Section 6(f):  (Title 16, United States Code, Section 4601- 8 (f)). Established restrictions on the use of land acquired with funds authorized under the LWCF Act and administered by the Department of the Interior.
Section 9:  (Title 33, United States Code, Section 401). The provision of federal statutes that established authority to issue permits for bridges and causeways across any navigable waters of the United States. Permit program is administered by the Coast Guard.
Separate Right of Way:  Longitudinally separated (curbs, barriers, grade separation) from traffic, but with vehicle and pedestrian grade crossings, e.g., curbed medians, side-of-street reservations, private right of way with few-to-frequent grade crossings.
Shared Right of Way:  Surface streets in which transit operates in lane(s) that are reserved for transit by paint striping and/or signals, or lanes in which transit vehicles operate with other traffic.
State Historic Preservation Office/r:  A state administrative agency responsible for compliance with historic preservation rules, laws, and regulations.
Station:  A designated location along a transit line where vehicles stop for the purpose of serving passengers.
Stream Encroachment Permit:  Federal permit required for projects placing fill within floodplains.
Streamlining:  Mandated by TEA-21 as a method of advancing projects more quickly and efficiently.
Street, Arterial:  A thoroughfare designed to carry vehicular traffic between neighborhoods and from surrounding areas into and out of the city.
Street, Collector:  A street that directs neighborhood vehicular traffic to the arterial street system; it basically serves the surrounding neighborhoods, not the wider community.
Street, Local:  A street that provides access to adjacent properties and allows for vehicular traffic circulation within a neighborhood.
Study Area:  The geographic area addressed by the analysis in a plan or study. In transportation planning, it is generally the same as the corridor.
Super/Sub Structure:  A structure that is over the top of, or underneath.
Sustainable Development:  Development with the goal of preserving environmental quality, natural resources, and livability for present and future generations. Sustainable initiatives work to ensure efficient use of resources.
System Capacity:  The ability of natural, infrastructure, social, and economic systems to accommodate growth and development without degrading or exceeding the limits of those systems, as determined by a carrying capacity analysis.

T   (Glossary of Definitions)

TABOR Amendment:  A taxpayer's "Bill of Rights" involving RTD and other government agencies' funding.
TEA-21:  Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, the major federal law governing the planning and implementation of surface transportation investment by the federal government.
Technical Advisory Committee (TAC):  This advisory group is just like its name implies. It is made up of people who give additional technical advice to the Union Station Master Planners. Many agencies and departments within the City and County of Denver, Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG), Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT), and the Regional Transportation District Board of Directors (RTD), are expected to provide members to this committee. TAC members will meet every three weeks.
Threatened Species:  A species that may become endangered if surrounding conditions begin or continue to deteriorate. (See also Endangered Species)
Transit:  A mass transportation system principally for moving people in an urban area and made available to the public usually through paying a fare.
Transit Corridor:  A broad geographic band that follows a general directional flow connecting major origins and destinations of trips and that may contain a number of streets, highways, and transit route alignments.
Transportation Corridor:  A combination of principal transportation routes involving a linear network of one or more highways of four or more lanes, rail lines, or other primary and secondary access facilities that support a development corridor.
Travel Time:  The time required to travel from one point to another.
Trip:  A single or one-way movement to or from a location.
Trip Demand:  The number and type (public or private origin and destination) of trips measured or calculated in a specified area having a given land development pattern. Trip demand also depends on prevailing economic, behavioral, and attitudinal conditions. (See also Trip Generation)
Trip Ends:  The total number of trips entering and leaving a specific location within a designated period of time. Each trip has two trip ends.
Trip Generation:  The total number of trip ends (person trips or vehicle trips) produced by a specific land use or activity.
Trip Length:  The number of miles per trip. This is usually an average number for a specified trip type, area, and analysis year.
Trip Linking:  The ability to visit several destinations during one journey.

U   (Glossary of Definitions)

Union Station Advisory Committee (USAC):   This committee serves as a major facet of public input for the Master Plan. Its members represent a wide range of specific stakeholders who are expected to have a distinct interest in the outcome of the Union Station Master Plan.
United States Code (USC):  Contains a consolidation and codification of all general and permanent laws of the U.S.
Uplands:  Land other than wetlands that are well drained and rarely, if ever, inundated.
USACOE Nationwide Permit:  A US Army Corps of Engineers general wetland fill permit designed for projects resulting in minor disturbances to wetlands.
USACOE Individual Permit:  A US Army Corps of Engineers wetland fill permit that is required when a project exceeds the limitations outlined in the various Nationwide Permits or when there is no Nationwide Permit that applies to a project.

V   (Glossary of Definitions)

Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT):  The total number of miles traveled in automobile and other vehicles for a specified area.
Vehicle Occupancy:  The number of persons per vehicle. Usually an average number for a specified trip type, area, and analysis year.

W   (Glossary of Definitions)

Wetland Transition Area:  The area between wetlands and surrounding uplands.
Wetlands:  Wet areas, such as tidal areas or swamps, with soil characteristics and vegetation that meet certain criteria defined by the US Army Corps of Engineers on which filling and development are federally and/or state-regulated.

X   (Glossary of Definitions)

Y   (Glossary of Definitions)

Z   (Glossary of Definitions)

Zoning:  To mark off land area within a city into zones for the purpose of controlling land use and density, e.g., single-family residential, multi-family residential, commercial, and industrial, etc. The state grants authority to cities to regulate land use through zoning. The intent of a city's zoning ordinance and map is to: promote the public health, safety, order, convenience, prosperity, and general welfare; conserve and protect the value of property, and encourage appropriate use of land; lessen congestion in the streets; prevent the overcrowding of land; avoid undue concentration of populations; and facilitate the adequate provision of transportation, water, sewage disposal, schools, parks, and other public requirements.
Zoning Ordinance:  A municipal ordinance that divides a municipality into districts and prescribes land-use type, land-use relationships, densities, height and setback, and related elements within the defined district.

-   (Glossary of Definitions)

450:  Title 23, Code of Federal Regulation, Part 450. Federal Highway Administration/Federal Transit Administration revised planning regulations governing the development of transportation plans and programs.
771:  Title 23, Code of Federal Regulation, Part 771. Federal Highway Administration/Federal Transit Administration regulations governing the preparation of environmental documents and related documents.
777:  Title 23, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 777. Federal Highway Administration regulations providing policy and procedures for evaluation and mitigation for impacted wetlands and natural resources.